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Bladder stones and blockages of cats, dogs, horses and ruminants.

Blockage of the urethra is a life threatening emergency in all species. You should immediately contact your vet if you see your pet straining to urinate (especially males).

This inability to urinate is usually caused by the lodging of debris, crystals and uroliths (bladder stones) in the urethra and is seen in most species. Surgery is often required to relieve the obstruction and some patients will die as a result of this disorder.

Lifelong dietary management is recommended to minimise development and recurrence of urinary debris/ crystals/ stones. 

These links provide further useful information;


Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD) | International Cat Care (

Lower Urinary Tract Disease in Cats (also known as FLUTD) - Veterinary Partner - VIN

Cats and Dogs

Urolithiasis in Small Animals - Urinary System - Merck Veterinary Manual (

Bladder Stones in Dogs and Cats - Veterinary Partner - VIN

Urolith Center


Urethral blockage is rare in horses. Some geldings get an accumulation of smegma in the urethral fossa at the tip of the penis which may need to be removed (a 'bean').

Urolithiasis in Horses - Urinary System - Merck Veterinary Manual (

Understanding Your Gelding and Using Common Sense When Cleaning His Sheath | EquiMed - Horse Health Matters



Urolithiasis in Ruminants - Urinary System - Merck Veterinary Manual (

Urolithiasis in Small Ruminants - American College of Veterinary Surgeons (

Urolithiasis in ruminants (

Bladder stones and blockages of cats, dogs and ruminants.: Resources
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